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what is disc golf

by David Toms
Disc Golf
Disc golfer and basket.jpg
Highestgoverning body Professional Disc Golf Association
Registered players 222553 (as of June 2022)[1]
Clubs Yes
Contact No
Team members Single competitors, doubles
Type Outdoor
Equipment Flying disc, Target, Tee off location
Olympic No
World Games 2001

Disc golf, also known asfrisbee golf,[2][a]is aflying disc sportin which players throw a disc at atarget; it is played using rules similar togolf.[4]Most disc golf discs are made out of polypropylene plastic, otherwise known as polypropene, which is a thermoplastic polymer resin used in a wide variety of applications. A number of different plastic kinds are also used to make discs, which are heated and molded into individual discs.[5][6]The sport is commonly played on a 9- or 18-hole layout (baskets). A hole is completed when a player throws a disc from a tee pad or area toward a goal known as a basket, then throws again from where the previous throw landed until the basket is reached. The baskets are made of wire and have dangling chains above them to catch the approaching discs, which subsequently fall into the basket for a score. Typically, the number of throws a player makes to achieve each basket is counted (typically in proportion to the number of baskets).par), and players compete to finish each hole with the fewest total throws.[6]The number of strokes an experienced golfer is anticipated to make for a certain course or set of holes is referred to as par (usually 9 or 18).[7]

The game is played in over 40 countries, and there are 90,916 active members as of March 31, 2022.Professional Disc Golf Association (PDGA)worldwide.

Origin and early history[edit]

Disc golf was first invented in the early 1900s. The first game took place inBladworth,Saskatchewan, Canada, in 1927.[8]Ronald Franklin Gibson and his Bladworth Elementary School classmates played a game in which they threw tin lids into 4-foot-wide circles carved onto sandy areas on the school grounds.[8][9][10]They dubbed the game Tin Lid Golf and played it often. However, after they grew older and went their separate ways, the game came to an end.[11]Modern disc golf was not introduced to Canadians until the 1970s at theCanadian Open Frisbee Championshipsin Toronto and Vancouver, British Columbia.[12][13]

Modern disc golf began in the early 1960s, although who came up with the concept originally is debatable. Throughout the 1960s, several groups of individuals played autonomously, according to agreement. Students fromRice UniversityAt the early 1960s, players in Pendleton King Park in Houston, Texas, for example, staged competitions utilizing trees as targets.Augusta, Georgia, would toss Frisbees into 50-gallon barrel trash cans designated as targets. Frisbee Golf was very popular in 1968.Alameda ParkinSanta Barbara, California, at the Anacapa and Sola street districts, by youths. The course had gazebos, water fountains, lampposts, and trees. This went on for many years, and an Alameda Park collectors edition CD is still available, albeit it is unusual since so few were created. This group’s Clifford Towne went on to set a National Time Aloft record.


Ed Headrick, also spelled “steady” Ed Headrick (June 28, 1924 – August 12, 2002) was a toy inventor from the United States. He is most renowned as the father of both modern and traditionalFrisbeeand of the sport and game of disc golf.

In 1975 Headrick’s tenure atWham-Owhere he helped redesign the flying disc known as the frisbee ended, and ties between Headrick and Wham-O eventually split. Headrick left the corporation to pursue his new hobby, which he created and patented “Disc Golf,” on his own.

The Disc Golf Association was founded in 1976 by “Steady” Ed Headrick and his son Ken Headrick (DGA). [3] The DGA’s mission was to produce discs and targets as well as to formalize the game of disc golf. Ed’s pole hole design, which essentially consisted of a pole poking out of the ground, was the first disc golf target.

The First Disc Golf Basket[edit]

Headrick and his son Ken invented the contemporary basket catch for disc golf, US Patent 4039189A, titled Flying Disc Entrapment Device, which they branded “Disc Pole Hole,” in 1977. The Disc Pole Hole established a standardized catching mechanism with a chain-hanger that held vertically hanging rows of chain out and away from a central pole. The vertical rows of chain formed a parabolic shape above and angled down towards a metal basket connected to and around the central pole and capable of catching a disc from all angles.

Until his death in 2002, Ed and his business DGA improved and gained patents for basket designs. Today there are over 12,000 courses installed throughout the world, the majority of them using baskets modeled on the Disc Pole Hole DGA baskets Headrick designed.


In December 2022, theProfessional Disc Golf AssociationTrans women would be barred from competing in Majors, it was declared.[14]

Disc golf courses[edit]

Most disc golf courses have 9 or 18 holes, and exceptions most often have holes in multiples of three. It is relatively rare to see courses of 6, 10, 12, 21, 24, or 27 holes.[15]The PDGA suggests that courses average 200-400 feet (61-122 meters) each hole, with holes no shorter than 100 feet (30 meters).[16]The world’s longest holes are more than 1,500 feet (460 meters) long. Course designers use trees, bushes, elevation changes, water hazards, and distance variation, along with out-of-bounds zones and mandatory flight paths to make each hole challenging and unique. Many courses include various tee locations or target placements to accommodate players of varying skill levels.[15]

Most disc golf courses are created in more natural, less groomed settings than golf courses and need less upkeep. Professional course designers consider safety a critical factor in course design, and are careful to minimize the danger of being hit by a flying disc while providing designs that create strategy in play and variety in shots for enjoyment. Holes are intended to demand a variety of throws in order to test players with varying strengths or specific talents. Many courses serve as hubs for local disc golf clubs, and some even have stores selling disc golf equipment. Disc Golf Course Review lists more than 80% of the courses as public and free to play.[17]

List of disc golf courses by country[edit]

Three countries account for 85% of all disc golf courses worldwide: theUnited States(75%),Finland(7%) andCanada(3%). Other notable countries include Sweden, andEstonia, which has the highest density of disc golf courses per km2 of dry land of any country and the second-highest number of courses per capita, between Iceland and Finland, which have 150 and 111 courses per million inhabitants, respectively. Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and South Korea have the most courses outside of North America and Europe. Every continent has a disc golf course, including 24 in Latin America, 8 in Africa, and one in Antarctica.Ålandhas been described as the world’s biggest single disc golf park, with one course in each of Land’s sixteen towns.[18][19][20]

*indicates“Disc golf in COUNTRY or TERRITORY”links.

Country DGC as % of world total per 1M inhabitants per 10,000 km2 ofdry land Distribution # Holes (18+/9+/<9)
 United States * 7,379 73% 22.6 4.5
 Finland * 720 7.1% 130.4 23.7
 Canada 360 3.6% 9.7 0.4
 Sweden 242 2.4% 24.3 5.9
 Estonia * 150 1.5% 113.4 35.4
 Germany 129 1.3% 1.6 3.7
 United Kingdom 107 1.1% 1.6 4.4
 Czechia 99 1% 9.3 12.8
 Norway 124 1.2% 23.2 4.1
 Japan 75 0.7% 0.6 2.1
 Denmark 76 0.8% 13.2 17.9
 Australia 89 0.9% 3.6 0.1
 France 97 1% 1.5 1.5
 Iceland 62 0.6% 184.1 6.2
 New Zealand 49 0.5% 10.3 1.9
 Switzerland 36 0.4% 4.2 9
 Austria 21 0.2% 2.4 2.5
 Netherlands 21 0.2% 1.2 6.2
 South Korea 16 0.2% 0.3 1.6
 Spain 17 0.2% 0.4 0.3
 Poland 12 0.1% 0.3 0.4
 Slovakia 12 0.1% 2.2 2.5
Rest of the world 210 2.1%
Total 10,103 Source:https://www.pdga.com/course-directory/advanced


A disc golf tee (commonly referred to as a tee box or the box) is the starting position of a hole. The PDGA recommends a tee box that is no less than 1.2 meters broad by 3 meters long.[15]The tee box is usually a pad ofconcrete,asphalt,rubber,gravel, orartificial turfSome courses feature natural grass with just the front tee box marked or no tee boxes at all, and players begin from a generic place depending on the course layout.


Tee signs are located at each tee position on established courses. Signs may depict a simple map of the hole including the tee, target, expected disc flight, out-of-bounds areas, water hazards, trees, and mandatory paths. The distance to the hole and par are common signs. Some courses include a distinct name for each hole as well as sponsor branding. They are sometimes accompanied by a bigger sign at the course entry that includes a map of the full course.[15]


A disc resting in abasket, the most common type of target

Although early courses used trees, fence posts, or park equipment as targets, regular courses are now used.disc golf basketsare by far the most prevalent target type on current courses. Some courses include tone targets that generate a distinct sound when struck with a disc. Disc golf baskets are made with a central pole that holds a basket underneath a collection of dangling chains. When a disc collides with the chains, it is often but not always diverted into the basket. Per PDGA rules, in order to complete a hole with a basket target, the disc must “enter the target above the top of the tray and below the bottom of the chain support, and come to rest supported by the target.[21]Baskets are manufactured by a variety of companies.manufacturers.


At the disc golf course on, a red disc sails towards a “Tonal Pole” type target.Pender Island

The rules of disc golf are identical to those of golf. A “round” is played on a disc golf course that has a number of “holes,” generally 9 or 18. Each hole includes a tee position for starting play and a disc golf target some distance away, often with obstacles such as trees, hills or bodies of water in between.[22]Players begin by throwing a disc from the tee, without crossing over the front of the tee prior to releasing the disc when throwing. This might result in a flaw akin to a bowling foot flaw in cricket. Players then navigate the hole by picking up the disc where it lands and throwing again until they reach the target. The goal of the game is to complete the course with the fewest total throws.[23]Play is normally done in groups of five or fewer people, with each person having a turn at the tee box, then moving with the player farthest from the hole throwing first, while the other players stand away.

Each course is unique, so each course requires a different combination of throws to complete, with the best players aiming to shape the flight of the disc to account for distance, terrain, obstacles and weather. To make various shots easier, players carry a range of discs with varied flight characteristics, selecting an appropriate disc for each throw. Some players additionally carry a tiny marker disc, which they use to precisely record the throwing position before each throw. Mini marker discs are very popular in formal competition play.

Many courses have out-of-bounds regions, sometimes known as “OB zones” or simply “OB”. If the disc falls in one of these zones, the player must normally add a penalty throw to his or her score and restart play from the point where the disc entered the out-of-bounds zone. Some courses include out-of-bounds areas with special rules requiring the player to resume play from a specified area called a drop zone, or requiring the player to restart the hole from the tee. Mandatories (also known as “Mandos”) are requirements that the route of the disc be above, below, or to one side of a specified line denoted by a sign on some courses.

Players traditionally throw from the tee box in the order of their previous hole score, with the lowest scorer throwing first. Most players also follow a loose code of courtesy while playing, which includes norms such as standing out of the sight line of the throwing player and avoiding making distracting noises. Because a thrown disc could injure someone, the Professional Disc Golf Association recommends that players “Never throw into a blind area or when spectators, pedestrians or facility users are within range.”[24]

Formal competitive play is governed by thePDGA Official Rules of Disc Golfand thePDGA Competition Manual for Disc Golf events.

Disc types[edit]

Three discs with varying edge profiles. From top to bottom: a driver, a mid-range, and a putter.

Disc golf discs are smaller thanUltimateFlying discs or recreational frisbees in general. They are usually 21-22 cm (8.3-8.7 in) in diameter and weigh 130-180 g (4.6-6.3 oz). All PDGA-approved discs have a diameter of 21-30 cm (8.3-11.8 in) and a weight of no more than 200 g (7.1 oz). Disc golf discs are created and fashioned for control, speed, and accuracy, but general-purpose flying discs, such as those used for playing Frisbee, are not.gutsor ultimate, are more classic in form, resembling a catch disc. There is a wide variety of discs used in disc golf and they are generally divided into three categories: drivers, mid-range discs, and putters.


Drivers are distinguished by their sharp, beveled edge and the concentration of their bulk on the outside rim of the disc rather than being dispersed evenly throughout. They are aerodynamically tuned and built to fly long distances at high speeds. They are primarily used by skilled players for tee shots and other long-distance fairway tosses.[25]

Some disc brands further sub-divide their drivers into different categories. As an example,InnovahasDistance DriversandFairway DriversA fairway driver is intermediate between a distance driver and a mid-range disc.Discrafthas three categories of drivers:Long Drivers,Extra Long Drivers, andMaximum Distance DriversA roller is another kind of driver that is used less often. It features a rolling edge, as the name suggests, rather than a flying edge. (While any disc may be used as a roller, some perform quite differently than others.)

Because the physics of a disc require “snap” or “flick”, which means putting spin on the disc, new players generally find that throwing a distance driver accurately can be somewhat difficult and will require experience with golf disc response. This is why players should start with fairway drivers, long drivers, or even mid-ranges, then progress to maximum distance drivers as their strength and disc control improve. The majority of new players will most likely be throwing lighter discs.

The world record for a golf disc was formerly 863.5 ft (263.2 m), set bySimon Lizotteon October 25, 2014.[26]On March 28, 2016, David Wiggins, Jr. beat the record with a distance of 1,108.92 ft (338.00 m).[27]


Mid-range discs have a dull, beveled edge and a wide rim. They have greater control than drivers, but a lesser range. Approach discs are often made of mid-range discs. Beginner players will often use mid-ranges instead of drivers at tee-off, as they require less strength and technique to fly straight than higher speed drivers.


Putters are designed to fly straight, predictably, and very slowly compared to mid-range discs and drivers. They are often utilized for close-up, tight, controlled shots.basket, while some players use them for short drives with trees or other impediments. A professional often carries 1-7 putters, depending on their flight characteristics. As a beginner it is suggested that you only use a putter or mid-range while building fundamentals such as proper follow-through, disc throw positioning, and hyzer/anhyzer technique. Additionally, higher speed discs will not fly properly without a fast enough release snap, so a putter or mid-range with lower snap requirements is more forgiving and will behave in a more regular way.


The propensity of a disc to bank laterally during flight is measured by stability. A disc that is over-stable will tend to track left (for a right handed, backhand throw), whereas a disc that is under-stable will tend to track right (also for a right handed, backhand throw). The stability rating of the discs varies based on the manufacturer. Innova Stability is rated as “turn” and “fade” by discs. “Turn” refers to how fast the disc will fly at the start and middle of its flight and is graded on a scale of +1 to -1.[28]to −5, where +1[28]is the most unstable, while 5 is the least stable. “Fade” refers to how the disc will fly at reduced speeds at the conclusion of its flight and is scored from 0 to 5, with 0 having the least fade and 5 having the most fade. A disc with a turn of 5 and a fade of 0 would, for example, fly to the right (for right handed, backhand throw) for the most of its flight and then curve back marginally left at the conclusion. A disc with a turn of 1 and a fade of +3 will turn slightly right during flight and hard left as it slows down. These ratings are available on the discs or on the manufacturer’s website. Discraft publishes the stability rating on all CDs and makes it available on their website. Discraft discs have stability ratings ranging from 3 to 2; however, Discraft’s ratings are more of a mix of turn and fade, with fade taking precedence.

Spin (rotation) has minimal effect on lift and drag forces, but it does affect a disc’s stability in flight. Consider a spinning top. A mild poke will throw it off its axis of rotation for a fraction of a second, but it will not collapse since spin provides gyroscopic stability. A flying disc, similarly, avoids rolling (turning over) because spin provides gyroscopic stability. Even when its velocity decreases, a flying disc maintains its spin rate. A flying disc will fade predictably at the conclusion of its journey when the spin and velocity lines intersect. The degree to which a disc fades is determined by its pitch angle and design.[29]


There are many types of discs, each constructed of a different plastic. Plastics such as DX, J-Pro, Pro-D, X-Line, D-line, retro, and R-Pro from Innova, Latitude 64°, Discmania, and Discraft are some of the less durable, but good for beginners due to their lower prices, compared to the higher end plastics. Plastics such as Champion, Titanium, FLX, GStar, Gold Line, Tournament Plastic, Fuzion, and Star, which are the best available from the same firms, have the highest quality, durability, and flight when compared to the other varieties. Plastics with extra functionality, such as glow-in-the-dark plastic and plastic that enables the disc to float in water, are also available. Most firms also provide a line of plastic that is much lighter than the maximum throwing weight (often loaded with air bubbles), which is ideal for novices or players with slower arm speed. Players may choose brightly colored discs to contrast the majority of green vegetation and make it simpler to retrieve their disc.

Throwing styles[edit]

While there are several grips and throwing styles, there are two main throwing techniques: backhand and forehand (or sidearm). The efficiency of these strategies varies depending on the situation. Their comprehension and proficiency may substantially enhance a player’s game and provide a variety of choices for navigating the disc to the basket more effectively. Many players use what is known as arun-upDuring their journey. This is done to increase forward disc motion and distance. Throwing styles differ from one another, and there is no standard throwing style.

When thrown, all discs will naturally fall in a direction specified by the rotation direction of the disc when released; this direction is referred to asHyzer, the natural fall of the disc, orAnhyzer, causing the disc to fall out of its usual flight path. The disc will naturally fall to the left for a right-handed backhand throw (RHBH). The disc will naturally fall to the right for a right-handed forehand throw (RHFH). The disc will naturally fall to the right for a left-handed backhand throw (LHBH). For a left-handed, forehand throw (LHFH), the disc will naturally fall to the left.


The disc is swiftly pulled across the front of the body and released at a front aimpoint to achieve this throw. The potential snap provided with this technique allows for more distance than a forehand throw. It is critical to start at the feet and enable momentum to proceed up the torso, hips, and shoulders, culminating in energy transfer to the disc.


The forehand (sidearm) throw is executed by bringing the disc from behind and somewhat across the front of the body, in the same manner as a sidearm throw in golf.baseball. The termsidearmactually predates the termforehand, which seems to be in use now as a simpler way to describe the technique, like to a tennis forehand.[30]

Alternative throws[edit]

The following throws may be utilized to better deliver a disc if the previous two throws would be obstructed by shrubs, trees, stones, or manmade constructions.

Common alternative styles

  • TheHatchet(Alternatively, Tomahawk). Gripped similarly to the sidearm toss but thrown with an overhand motion; the disc orientation is nearly perpendicular to the ground over much of the flight.
  • TheThumber(or U.D.). Thrown in an overhand manner but with thumb held on the disc’s underside.
  • TheRoller. Thrown backhand or forehand, the disc will mostly make contact with the ground. The disc remains in motion while travelling on its edge at a slight angle, and can travel exceedingly far in ideal situations. Once mastered, the roller is a very useful weapon in any golfer’s armory.
  • TheTurbo-PuttThrown with a putter when the golfer holds the disc upright, thumb in the centre, and finger tips outside the edge, similar to a waiter carrying a plate. The player stands with the leg opposite from the throwing arm forward, reaches back, and then extends their arm towards the basket, throwing the disc in a motion similar to that of throwing a dart. The thrower should not rotate his wrist; the act of following through is what causes the disc to spin.[31]The Turbo-Putt throw is noted for its precision, yet it has a very short range.

Other alternative styles

  • TheBaseballorGrenadeThrown in the same manner as the backhand, but with the disc upside-down. This shot is used often to get up and down on a short shot where there is danger of a shot rolling away or going out of bounds if thrown too far. Utilized mostly for downhill shoots, but may also be used to go up and over. This shot is also utilized to get out of the trees because to its swift turn and backspin.
  • TheOverhand wristflip(orchicken-wing[ambiguous origin][dubiousdiscuss] ). This is a very difficult and stylized throw with which accomplished free-stylers and classic ultimate players are familiar; it is less used in disc golf. It is thrown in the same fashion as a “baseball,” but with the arm and disc inverted and drawn on the sidearm side of the body. Using the thumb as the power finger, the disc is drawn from the thigh area rearwards and up from behind the body to over the shoulder, releasing toward a forward aimpoint. The disc follows a standard flight pattern. This seems to be a clumsy throw to the inexperienced eye. However, it is beautiful and precise. Since at least 1970, the phrase “overhand wristflip” has been in usage.


Stroke playis the most common scoring method used in the sport but there are many other forms. These are some examples:match play,skins,speed golfand captain’s pick, often known as “doubles” in disc golf (not to be confused with partner or team play).

Regardless of the mode of play chosen, the basic goals of disc golf are theoretically the same as conventional golf in the sense that players use the same scorekeeping system.

Scoring terms for a single hole:

  • Condor– A player who is four throws under par, or “-4”.
  • Albatross(also known as a double-eagle) – When a player is three throws under par, or “-3”.
  • Eagle(also known as a double-birdie) – When a player is two throws under par, or “-2”.
  • Birdie– Where a player is one throw under par, or “-1”.
  • Par– Where a player has thrown par, “E” or “0”.
  • Bogey– Where a player is one throw over par, or “+1”.
  • Double Bogey– Where a player is two throws over par, or “+2”.
  • Triple Bogey– A player who is three throws over par, or “+3”.

Doubles play is a distinct form of play that is offered on a weekly basis by various local facilities. Teams of two golfers are formed in this style. This is sometimes done by a random draw, and other times using a pro-am format. The course is a “best-disc” scramble, which means that both players toss their tee shot and then chose which lie they want to play. Both players then choose which lie is preferred and play from the same lying. Best shot, alternative shot, best score (players play singles and pick the best result from the hole), and worst shot are all part of the World Amateur Doubles Format (both players must sink the putt).


Tournaments are held nationwide and year long in the United States. The sanctioned tournament play is transmitted through theProfessional Disc Golf AssociationMembership. The PDGA provides international, professional, and amateur disc golf tournaments as well as communicates event results, opinions and other information beneficial to the sport via electronic and printed media. The inaugural PDGA convention was held in 1982.World Championship Tournament. The World Championships have been hosted in 17 different American states, as well as Toronto, Ontario, since then.[32]

Disc golf events are quite popular all around the globe. Similarly to conventionalgolf, there are many championship tournaments. The biggest of them is theUnited States Disc Golf Championship, held in October in Rock Hill, South Carolina.

Every year, the world’s biggest team event is conducted inAustin, Texas, byJohn Houck.[33]

Annual winter competitions known as Ice Bowls are organized at venues across the globe to demonstrate the sport’s year-round viability. Ice Bowls, with the slogan “No Wimps, No Whiners,” are aimed to raise sport awareness and are considered charity events that often benefit a food bank nearby to a certain tournament area. According to the official website, the 2010 Ice Bowls collected over $250,000 and contributed over 67,000 pounds of food across the year’s 222 matches. The annual St. Jude Disc Golf Competition is another nonprofit tournament.[34]It began in 2017 and has earned more than $100,000 for St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital.[35]


A disc golf course in a public park.

Disc golf is a rapidly growing sport worldwide,[36]It is the fourth fastest growing sport in the United States, after onlymixed martial arts,roller derby, andparkour.[37]DGCourseReview.com, which tracks courses worldwide along with opening dates, shows a rapid increase in installed permanent courses with an average of more than 400 new courses added each year between 2007 and 2017. The website contains 9744 courses from all around the globe (in Feb 2022).[38]

Although most players play on a casual, amateur level, the professional disc golf scene is also growing rapidly, with the top professionals playing full-time and earning their livings through tournament winnings and sponsorship from equipment manufacturers. Online viewership of key tournaments and events has skyrocketed, with coverage of the 2019 World Championship garnering over 3 million views on YouTube.[39]and a professional Philo Braithwaite video of a lone albatross with over 1.4 million views.[40]

Post-round coverage[edit]

The rising popularity of disc golf may be due primarily to improved coverage of pro tour tournaments, which are freely accessible on YouTube. Jomez Productions, Gatekeeper Media, and Gk Pro all film events on the day of and broadcast them the next morning. These films often have a reach of up to 200,000 people. Jomez Productions and the Disc Golf Pro Tour have secured an arrangement with CBS Sports and ESPN 2 to carry post-production coverage of an event on each network during the 2020 season. The Dynamic Discs Open broadcast on CBS Sports, and the Disc Golf Pro Tour championship aired again on ESPN2 on November 24, 2020. It was the most-watched program on the station that day, with 225,000 people.[41]

Women in disc golf[edit]

While there are more male than female players, the Women’s Disc Golf Association exists to encourage female players and arrange women’s tournaments. According to a 2020 PDGA poll, 4,752 of its 71,016 current members are female.[42]

Women at the 2021 WGE event in Malaysia

Several corporations have launched initiatives and websites to encourage women to participate in sports. “Dedicated to Attracting, Encouraging, and Retaining Female Participation in Organized Disc Golf Events,” the PDGA Women’s Committee states. The PDGA Women’s Committee set historical records on 12 May 2012 by running the Inaugural Women’s Global Event that attracted 636 female players in 24 states and 4 countries. The Women’s Global Event was scheduled to take place every two years beginning in 2014, with the intention of expanding the number of participants. The 2021 Women’s Global Event included 99 registered events from Minnesota to Malaysia, with a total attendance of 3224 women participating in 23 different PDGA classes.[43]

There are also disc golf firms like as Disc-Diva, that have sprung up with a major, though not exclusive, emphasis on women in the sport, pushing items tailored towards women and employing catch phrases such “you wish you threw like a lady”.[44]Another organisation that advocates for increased female participation in sports is Sassy Pants, which advocates for female tournament sponsorship.[45]

The National Collegiate Disc Golf Championship features women’s disc golf teams, with the Mississippi State Women’s Team being the first victors.

The Disc Golf Hall of Fame[edit]


Year showDisc Golf Hall of Fame Inductees[47][48]

Disc golf associations[edit]

Est. Name Abbr. Location Region Reach
1976 Professional Disc Golf Association[49] PDGA Appling, Georgia  United States International
1977 French Flying Disc Federation (French:French Flying Disc Federation; French Flying Disc Federation)[50][51] FFFD and FFDF Poissy  France National
1986 Swiss Disc Golf Association (Swiss Standard German:Schweizer Disc Golf Verband;French:Association suisse de disc golf)[52] (Swiss Standard German:SDGV;French:ASDG) Reichenbach im Kandertal, Bern  Switzerland National
1997 Maui Disc Golf Association[53] MDGA Lahaina, Hawaii  Hawaii State
1998 Finnish Disc Golf Association (Finnish:Suomen frisbeegolfliitto)[54][55] FDGA (Finnish:SFL)  Finland National
2011 Czech Disc Golf Association (Czech:Česká asociace discgolfu)[56] (Czech:ČADG) Prague  Czechia National
2013 Regina Disc Golf Association[57] RDGA Regina, Saskatchewan Regina, SaskatchewanRegina, Saskatchewan City
2014 Estonian Disc Golf Association (Estonian:Eesti Discgolfi Liit)[58][59] EDGA (Estonian:EDGL) Pärnu  Estonia National
2014 Maritime Disc Golf Association[60] MDGA The Maritimes Regional
2016 Swedish Disc Golf Association (Swedish:Svenska Discgolfförbundet)[61] (Swedish:SDGF) Göteborg  Sweden National

See also[edit]


  1. ^The termfrisbee golfis discouraged by sports organizations such as thePDGA, as a result of possible trademark infringement conflicts withWham-O, who own the trademark rights to theFrisbeename.[3]
  2. ^Founder of prodigy disc


  1. ^“PDGA Player Search”.Professional Disc Golf Association. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  2. ^Delaney, Tim; Tim Madigan (2021).The Sociology of Sports: An Introduction(3rd ed.). McFarland. p. 439.ISBN 9781476644097– via Google Books.
  3. ^Williamson, Alex (26 September 2022).“Frisbee Golf: The Same as Disc Golf, But Not in the United States.”ReleasePoint. UDisc.
  4. ^“What is disc golf”.Disc Golf Association. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  5. ^“How disc golf discs are made”.DiscGolfNow.com. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  6. ^Jump up to:ab“On Your Own; Connecting a Fairway”.The New York Times. 2 July 1990.ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  7. ^“Golf Scoring Terminology (Par, Bogey, Birdie, Eagle, Albatross, and Others)”.GolfBit. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
  8. ^Jump up to:abVictor Malafronte’s “The Complete Book of Frisbee,” page 41
  9. ^Bladworth Cemetery is part of the Saskatchewan Cemeteries Project.https://sites.rootsweb.com/~cansacem/bladworth.html
  10. ^“A Chain of Events – The Origin and Evolution of Disc Golf,” by Jim Palmeri, page 72
  11. ^“Disc Golf”.Disc Golf History. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
  12. ^“Canadian Open Frisbee Championships”.Frisbee Pioneer Ken Westerfield. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  13. ^“History of Frisbee and Flying Disc freestyle”.Development of Frisbee in Canada. 11 May 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  14. ^Mintz, Sam.“Transgender Women Face New Rules; Pros and Industry Remain Silent”.
  15. ^Jump up to:abcd“PDGA Disc Golf Course Design Recommendations”(PDF).PDGA.com.Archived(PDF) from the original on 26 July 2014.
  16. ^“DGA | Disc Golf Association PDGA Disc Golf Course Design Standards”.DGA | Disc Golf Association. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  17. ^“Disc Golf Course Review: Over 6000 Disc Golf Courses to View and Review!”.www.dgcoursereview.com. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
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80 ms 3.6%
MediaWikiExtensionScribuntoEngines LuaSandbox LuaSandbox Callback:: 80 ms 3.6% callParserFunction
dataWrapper 80 ms 3.6%
MediaWikiExtensionScribuntoEngines LuaSandbox LuaSandbox Callback:: 80 ms 3.6% expandTemplate
recursiveClone 60 ms 2.7%
MediaWikiExtension ScribuntoEngines LuaSandbox LuaSandbox match 60 ms 2.7% callback
list_people 40 ms 1.8%
mw.executeModule 40 ms 1.8%
[others] 240 ms 10.7%
Number of Wikibase entities loaded: 1/400

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